Iraq, 450 billions of dollars have disappeared since Saddam's death


Brahim maarad on Agi briefly recounted what happened in Iraq after the deposition of Saddam Hussein.

From the 2003, year of the deposition of the Saddam Hussein rais, dat the Iraqi public coffers about 450 billion dollars have disappeared, four times the budget maneuver, more than double the GDP: the figure summarizes the profound reasons that have led thousands of Iraqis to rebel against the government in bloody demonstrations that have claimed the lives of fifty people so far.

Most of Iraq's 40 million inhabitants live in poverty despite the country's never lacking oil wealth. After the fall of Saddam, the new Iraqi leaders struggled to chart a democratic path after decades of dictatorship. Two events were crucial. First, the US decision to ban the long-dominant Baath party - and the way it was implemented - created a political vacuum. Second, disbanding the army - leaving hundreds of thousands of trained men with no alternative - left a security vacuum. Iraq has suffered from a civil war, political turmoil, widespread corruption, sectarian tensions and an extremist insurrection that has turned a third of the country upside down.

There are four - analyzes the United States Institute for Peace - the main phases that characterized the new Iraq. 

The first is an initial transition between 2003 and 2007, which began with an interim authority from the US-led coalition. The US military is responsible for national security. The transition includes building new parties, recruiting and training new military forces, creating a nascent civil society and drafting new laws.

In 2005, Iraqis voted for a new Constitution, which introduces individual rights also for religious and ethnic minorities. The political balance of power - dominated by Sunnis for centuries - changes radically. For the first time, the Shia majority reclaim the prime minister's seat and have enough leverage to control key ministries and other important state offices.

However, the transition sparked sectarian tensions, which led to the attacks of the shrine of al-Askari, a Shiite sacred place, in early 2006. Over the years, a series of jihadist leaders have followed one another determined to foment hostilities between ethnic communities and religious of Iraq. The second phase, from 2007 to 2011, is marked by the US military wave that brings an additional 30 soldiers - in addition to the 130.000 already deployed - to help stem the escalation of bloodshed.

Meanwhile there is the so-called "awakening" among the Iraqi Sunni tribes: they rebel against the jihadist movement and begin to work with US troops. The United States decides to withdraw from Iraq by 2011, with the agreement of the Baghdad government that it would incorporate Sunni tribes into the Iraqi security forces to contain the sectarian division. The third phase takes place between 2012 and 2017, as the Iraqi government fails to keep promises to hire and pay the Sunni minority that had fought the jihadists.

Thousands of Sunnis are arrested. In early 2013, tens of thousands take part in anti-government protests in Ramadi, Falluja, Samarra, Mosul and Kirkuk. Sunnis accuse Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki of exclusive sectarian policies. Maliki's relations with the Kurds are also worsening.

The inability of the Shia-dominated government to accommodate Sunnis allows the self-styled Islamic State to rebuild itself, recruiting thousands of Sunni fighters, and take full control of Fallujah in 2013. Despite being larger and better equipped, the Iraqi army crumbles. In June 2014, ISIS comes to take control of a third of the country and the leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi declares the creation of the caliphate in Mosul, the second largest city in Iraq.

Establishes a reign of terror with kidnappings, executions, mass murder, looting, extortion, seizure of state resources and smuggling. The rise of ISIS further divides Iraqi society: it is also war between Sunnis and Shiites. The fourth phase begins in 2018 after the government regained control over all Iraqi territory. In May 2018, a national election reshapes the political landscape.

Shiite cleric Moqtada al-Sadr leads an unlikely coalition with secular Sunnis and Communists that wins the most seats as the Iran-backed bloc comes in second. Parliament elects the Kurdish politician, Barham Salih, president and Muhammad al-Halbusi, a 37-year-old Sunni deputy, as president of the parliament. Salih appoints Adil Abdul al-Mahdi, a 76-year-old economist and Shiite political expert as prime minister.


Iraq, 450 billions of dollars have disappeared since Saddam's death