Libia, salta accordo del Fezzan, l’Italia rimane a mani vuote. C’è lo zampino della Francia

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L’accordo del Fezzan firmato a Roma lo scorso anno dal ministro Minniti non esiste più, i francesi anche questa volta sono riusciti a vanificare un “piccolo” successo italiano nell’area. Un editoriale di “La Stampa” analizza nel dettaglio la situazione aggiornata sul campo.

L’elemento di novità sarebbe l’infiltrazione delle tribù Tebu libiche da parte di elementi della stessa etnia provenienti da Niger e Ciad, propensi ad un nuovo conflitto per prendersi potere e risorse. Ne giovano delle tensioni il generale Khalifa Haftar e i francesi. La regione sud-occidentale della Libia è il centro dei traffici di esseri umani ma anche ricco di giacimenti di petrolio, compreso il più grande dell’Eni in territorio libico. La caduta di Gheddafi di Muammar Gheddafi nel 2011 ha fatto si che tre gruppi si contendessero il potere nel Fezzan. I Tuareg, popolazione berbera che vive anche al confine con Algeria, la tribù araba dei Aulad Suleiman, e infine i Tebu, una popolazione di etnia e lingua africana. La fine della dittatura ha portato alla luce rivalità endemiche  che si erano già viste nella guerra in Ciad degli Anni Ottanta, quando i Tebu stavano con Gheddafi e i Tuareg contro. La mediazione italiana, cominciata nel 2015 sotto gli auspici della Comunità di Sant’Egidio, era stata finalizzata dall’ex ministro dell’Interno Claudio Minniti il 3 aprile scorso. L’accordo era riuscito soprattutto a portare i Tebu vicino alle posizioni di Roma, interessata a sigillare il confine con il Niger per stoppare il flusso di migranti. Milizie Tebu avevano cominciato a controllare i posti di frontiera e nuovi equilibri dovevano essere completati da una missione militare italiana in Niger, mai iniziata poiché non digerita dal governo nigerino e della Francia. A partire da questa primavera le posizioni italiane si sono indebolite sempre più. Il primo colpo è stato un incontro fra le tribù del Fezzan a Niamey, sotto regia francese, lo scorso 12 aprile. Al termine del vertice il leader degli Aulad Suleiman, Senussi Ornar Massoud, ha accusato il governo di unità nazionale di Tripoli guidato da Fayez al-Sarraj, quindi anche l’Italia, di «non aver rispettato raccordo di Roma», che andava «completato». Gli Aulad Suleiman sono sempre stati ostili a Gheddafi, e adesso ad Hartar, e finora erano rimasti più vicini al governo di Al-Sarraj. I Tuareg sono invece da sempre alleati della Francia. Quindi l’ultima carta in mano all’Italia restavano i Tebu. Qui si sono inserite due nuove interferenze. La prima deriva dalla battaglia fra Haftar e Al-Sarraj per il controllo dei pozzi petroliferi, riesplosa all’inizio di quest’anno. Il centro del conflitto è sulla costa, nella cosiddetta Mezzaluna del Petrolio, ma ha ricadute anche nel Fezzan. Il giacimento conteso in questa regione è l’Hephant Field, conquistato dai Tebu nel 2015 e poi ripreso dalla Guardia petrolifera alleata di Tripoli. Ora, mentre Haftar sta preparando una nuova offensiva per riprendersi la Mezzaluna petrolifera, elementi all’interno dei Tebu sono di nuovo propensi ad allearsi con il generale, anche nella speranza di assicurarsi una fetta delle risorse petrolifere. Il figlio del capo della tribù, Abu Bakir, ha dichiarato alla testata «Thè New Arab» che «gli islamisti hanno fallito, i libici vogliono stabilità, per questo preferiscono Haftar», una dichiarazione di alleanza. Ma i Tebu sono alle prese con un secondo elemento di destabilizzazione, l’infiltrazione di combattenti della loro stessa etnia, ma di nazionalità ciadiana e nigerina. Sono milizie che, secondo fonti locali, hanno già preso il controllo di varie località, come Qataroon, Murzuq (dove c’è il petrolio), Traagin, e Um Aramib, ma non si capisce al servizio di chi. Gli arabi accusano i Tebu di «ospitare questi mercenari per prendersi tutto il Fezzan». La leadership Tebu sostiene invece di essere impegnata, al fianco di Haftar, nel respingere gli intrusi. Un caos che non promette niente di buono. Così le milizie che si dividono il Paese Tebu sono un popolo di etnia africana che parla una lingua Nilo-Sahariana, divisa in vari dialetti. Vivono fra Niger, Ciad, Libia e Sudan. La popolazione complessiva è di circa 800 mila persone, 70 mila in Libia, 400 mila in Ciad. Sono anche chiamati «i nomadi neri», mentre gli arabi li definiscono a volte con termine dispregiativo «mori». Gheddafi li ha usati come mercenari contro le tribù berbere e Tuareg. Aulad Suleiman I «figli di Suleiman» sono la più importante tribù araba nel capoluogo del Fezzan Sebah, la porta del Sahara centrale. Sono da sempre vicini al movimento islamista e nazionalista della Senussia, come dimostra il titolo «Senussi» che precede il nome dei loro leader. Durante la dittatura di Muammar Gheddafi sono stati discriminati dal regime. Dopo la rivoluzione si sono schierati con le tribù islamiche di Misurata. Ma ora sono tentati dal generale Haftar. Tuareg Sono una popolazione berbera, che parla una lingua diversa dall’arabo. Vivono in tutto il Sahara occidentale, dal Mali all’Algeria, Tunisia, Libia, Niger. La popolazione è stimata in oltre tre milioni, i due terzi in Niger. Vengono chiamati il «popolo blu» per il colore dei loro abiti tradizionali e sono i migliori conoscitori delle piste del deserto.

fonte La Stampa

Libia, salta accordo del Fezzan, l’Italia rimane a mani vuote. C’è lo zampino della Francia

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